Archive for the ‘Transport and Infrastructure’ Category

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June 10, 2012

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Holograms to replace people at New York airports

May 28, 2012

As the summer travel season gets underway, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey has announced new initiatives to improve customer service for passengers at the region’s busiest airports.

More than 106 million passengers use the agency’s three major airports each year, which in addition to LaGuardia and Newark includes John F. Kennedy International Airport. The enhancements will provide immediate results just as air travel starts to increase during the busiest time of the year. These initiatives are the direct result of a customer survey conducted by the Port Authority of more than 10,000 air passengers who evaluated their experience.

Among the new initiatives will be a 20 percent increase in the number of Customer Care Representatives during peak hours, with 70 new agents. Currently, 350 customer care agents provide valuable information to help customers navigate the airport and public transportation options. They staff the airport’s welcome centres and other high-volume terminal areas like checkpoint entry and exit areas, and are easily identifiable by their red jackets.

Given the huge volumes of international travellers, the Customer Service Representatives speak a total of 27 different languages, with English and Spanish most prevalent.

To expand on the program, the Port Authority has created an innovative pilot plan that will see five “virtual” customer care representatives. These will be computerised, hologram-like avatars providing automated information to travellers in LaGuardia’s Central Terminal Building, Newark Liberty’s Terminal B and JFK’s Terminal 5 when they are installed in early July, at a cost of $180,000.

The avatars are not interactive, but Port Authority Executive Director Pat Foye is quoted as saying he “hopes a future iteration of the talking machines will hold conversations with passengers.”

The technology has already been used in France and elsewhere, but this will be the first time it has appeared in North America.

For more info, see http://www.airportone.com/

SpaceX launches Falcon 9 on historic mission

May 22, 2012

2011 witnessed the final Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) and the subsequent retirement of the fleet. Two private companies – SpaceX and Orbital Sciences Corporation – were selected to provide cargo delivery services to the station until 2015, under the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program.

SpaceX developed the Falcon 9 – a medium-lift rocket with payload capacity of 10,450 kilograms (23,000 lb). Today, it became the first 100% commercially developed launcher to deliver a payload to the International Space Station.

NASA’s administrator Charles Bolden said: “Today marks the beginning of a new era in exploration… The significance of this day cannot be overstated; a private company has launched a spacecraft to the International Space Station that will attempt to dock there for the first time. And while there is a lot of work ahead to successfully complete this mission, we are certainly off to a good start.”

In 2013, SpaceX is planning to test a much larger rocket, with over twice the capacity of the Space Shuttle – the Falcon Heavy.

Video from NewsyScience:

Asteroid Mining: Science or Fiction?

May 14, 2012

The goal – trillions in riches from asteroids – has now been verified. But what obstacles and milestones stand along our 20 year path? In this video, astronomer and sci-fi author David Brin lays out some preliminary points to consider.

Teleportation breakthrough

May 13, 2012

Quantum teleportation is the transmission of information from one particle to another, without a physical link, using quantum physics. Einstein famously described this as “spooky action at a distance”.

The process was first demonstrated by Austrian scientists in 1997, when the quantum state of a single photon was teleported across a table top. This was followed in 2004 by successful transmission over 600m (1968ft) from one side of the River Danube to the other.
Another breakthrough was made in 2010, when scientists at China’s University of Science and Technology sent photons over a distance of 10 miles (16 km).

Now, the same team has used quantum teleportation to send photons between two optical free-space links over a distance of 60 miles (97 km). The particles were beamed across Qinghai Lake, the largest lake in China.

In the future, perhaps a global network of satellite-based quantum cryptography will be developed, for ultra-secure communications. Using this method, it would be literally impossible for data to be intercepted en route. We may also witness teleportation of the first complex organic molecules (such as DNA and proteins), according to Michio Kaku.

Human teleportation is still a long, long way off however – if such a transportation method is even possible at all. According to a study by the US Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the information processing and transfer technology required may become possible in around 250 years, based on current trends.

The full report by the University of Science and Technology of China is available here.

Russia develops revolutionary new rocket engine

May 9, 2012

Energomash – a Russian power and engineering firm – is reportedly developing a new type of rocket engine that could revolutionise space travel. By using acetylene and ammonia as fuel, it will be almost 20 times cheaper than a typical hydrogen-powered rocket. The engine will also be 30% more efficient than current designs.

In addition, the fuel components could be easily stored and transported, whereas hydrogen requires special storage and transportation conditions.

Energomash officials believe rockets could be launched with the new engine in 2017-2018.

Major milestone takes “flying car” closer to first delivery

April 10, 2012

Developed by Terrafugia, the “Transition” is a two-seater personal aircraft/car hybrid that can drive on roads and highways, park in a single car garage, and fly with unleaded petrol. This light sport, roadable aircraft has been under development since 2006. It is now a significant step closer to becoming a commercial reality, after the production prototype completed its first test flight at New York’s Plattsburgh International Airport.

It is the first vehicle in the world to have met both the standards of the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and the NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration), making it the first “street legal aeroplane”.

The Transition’s first flight reached an altitude of 426m (1400 ft) above the ground and lasted eight minutes while staying in the vicinity of the airport. During this time, it demonstrated the controllability and safe operational characteristics of the aircraft. Six phases of flight testing are planned to continue development and demonstrate compliance to the Light Sport Aircraft standards.

The production prototype is on display at the New York International Auto Show until 15th April. Initial customer deliveries are expected in 2013, with a price tag of US$279,000.

Battery switch stations could revolutionise the electric car industry

April 9, 2012

Better Place is a venture-backed American-Israeli company based in California, which aims to develop new infrastructure to boost the electric vehicle industry. According to Shai Agassi, the company’s founder and CEO, his vision was inspired by Klaus Schwab at the World Economic Forum, who asked: “How do you make the world a better place by 2020?”

Though they are clean and green, a major issue for electric cars is their limited range and the time needed to recharge batteries, which can be up to several hours. This “range anxiety” has dissuaded many potential buyers until now.

To get around this problem, Better Place has been promoting the idea of battery swapping. Using an automated system, a spent battery can be ejected and replaced with a fully charged one, saving the delay of waiting for the vehicle’s battery to charge up. The driver can remain in their car while the battery is swapped, with the process being completed in less than a minute, which is actually faster than refueling a conventional petrol car.

With networks of battery switching stations in and around cities, drivers would potentially have electric cars with unlimited ranges for long distance trips.

Better Place is partnering with governments and businesses around the world to accelerate this transition to sustainable transport. Retail customer deliveries of Renault’s Fluence ZE – the first electric car to operate in the Better Place network – are scheduled for the second quarter of 2012. The first battery switch stations have already been deployed in China, Denmark and Israel, with plans for additional networks in over 25 regions around the world.

Driverless cars can be licensed in Nevada

February 27, 2012

Nevada has become the first state in the US to allow self-driving autonomous vehicles on public roads.

The newly approved regulations, which come into effect on Thursday 1st March, require two drivers in every car – one in the front seat, to take back control in an emergency. The vehicles must also be fitted with a data recorder, to collect information in the event of a crash.

In creating the regulations, the Department of Motor Vehicles partnered with Google, auto manufacturers, testing professionals, insurance companies, universities and law enforcement, all with a common vision of saving lives.

Several other states currently have bills in front of their legislators that will follow Nevada into the future.

You will be able to distinguish an autonomous test vehicle by the red license plate it displays. When the technology is ready for general public use, a green license plate will be displayed on vehicles using it.

2011 – A look back (part 5)

January 31, 2012

In this final part of our look back at 2011, we focus on space, followed by transport and infrastructure.

Space

12th April 2011 marked the 50th anniversary of human spaceflight – exactly half a century since Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space. This milestone was celebrated by space enthusiasts around the world, and gave pause for thought as to what the next 50 years might have in store.

No film exists showing what Gagarin saw from his Vostok capsule; there is only an audio recording of his observations. However, a documentary called First Orbit was filmed to mark the anniversary. By matching the orbit of the International Space Station to that of Vostok 1 as closely as possible, in terms of ground path and time of day, this movie shows what Yuri Gagarin saw on his pioneering orbital space flight. This new footage was cut together with the original Vostok 1 mission audio recordings, sourced from the Russian State Archive of Scientific and Technical Documentation.

2011 saw a total of 84 orbital launches, with 80 successfully reaching orbit. 35 were conducted using Russian and former Soviet rockets, whilst China conducted 19 and the USA 18. Europe conducted five launches, India and Japan launched three rockets each, and Iran conducted one launch.

Among the most high-profile launches of 2011 was STS-135, the final mission of the Space Shuttle program before its retirement, following 30 years of service. This leaves NASA dependent on Russian Soyuz vehicles to carry its astronauts to and from low-Earth orbit. However, the agency hopes private companies can provide this service in five years or so.

China continued to demonstrate its proficiency in space, as it successfully docked two spacecraft in Earth orbit for the first time. These modules – Shenzhou 8 and Tiangong 1 – were key stages in the development of a much larger space station, intended for completion by 2022.

China also activated its Compass navigation system – a rival to the American Global Positioning System (GPS), offering navigation services on China’s mainland. Also known as Beidou-2, the system is expected to offer global coverage by 2020.

Europe also made progress towards its own independent satellite navigation system, as the first two Galileo satellites were launched by the European Space Agency.

A significant increase in the Sun’s activity was observed in 2011, with a huge solar flare in August. Solar maximum – the period of greatest activity during its 11-year cycle – will be reached in 2013.

2011 saw the first orbit of Mercury by a spacecraft (previous missions had been “slingshot” flybys only). This was achieved by a NASA probe called MESSENGER. It had already mapped 98% of the planet’s surface in 2009 – including the previously unseen far side – and in 2011 it revealed a number of new discoveries. Among these were the unexpectedly high concentrations of magnesium and calcium found on Mercury’s night side, and the fact that its magnetic field is offset far to the north of the planet’s centre. Following in the footsteps of MESSENGER, Europe and Japan will launch BepiColombo in 2014, a joint mission that is scheduled to arrive in 2020.

Venus Express – the first exploration of Venus by ESA – revealed new data in 2011. The planet was found to have an ozone layer in its upper atmosphere. Previously, ozone layers had only been detected in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars.

On Earth, there were stunning lunar eclipses in June and December – the former being the longest total eclipse in 11 years. For those lucky enough to witness it, the Moon was tinted red.

NASA launched the Mars Science Laboratory in 2011. Scheduled to arrive in August 2012, this will deploy the largest rover to ever touch down on Mars. Nicknamed Curiosity, it will include the first video camera to be used on Mars. An HD-quality film of the probe’s descent through the atmosphere will also be recorded, giving a spectacular view of the Martian landscape below.

Russia had been planning a sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars, but this failed to leave Earth orbit and later crashed into the Pacific Ocean west of Chile.

Meanwhile, six men emerged from the MARS-500 experiment which aimed to simulate a manned mission to Mars. The project, undertaken at a Moscow scientific institute, was intended to reveal how the human mind and body would cope with the isolation of long-duration space travel. The experiment ended with all of the participants in good physical and psychological condition.

NASA announced the development of a major new rocket in 2011 – the Space Launch System. In addition to providing transportation to the International Space Station – via the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle – it could eventually take astronauts to Mars. A first unmanned test flight is scheduled for 2017, with a manned flight around the Moon planned for 2019. This timeline is based on a “worst case” budget, meaning it could happen even sooner.

The world’s first commercial spaceport was opened in 2011 – Spaceport America, located in the Jornada del Muerto desert of New Mexico, USA. This will offer sub-orbital spaceflights to the paying public, reaching heights of nearly 70 miles (112 km), with passengers experiencing up to six minutes of zero-G. More than 400 reservations have already been made, at $200,000 per head. Richard Branson’s Virgin Galactic is among the companies involved. In a separate development, another company announced plans for the first lunar tourist and said that it had already secured a client.

2011 saw the first orbit of Vesta, one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System. This was visited by the Dawn probe which returned spectacular pictures. The craft will rendezvous with Ceres in 2015. It is hoped that this mission will reveal much about the early history and formation of the Solar System.

Another craft – Stardust – intercepted comet Tempel 1, which was previously visited by the Deep Impact probe.

The Juno probe was launched in 2011. Arriving in 2016, this will study Jupiter in greater detail than was ever before possible. Placed in a polar orbit, it will analyse the planet’s composition, gravity field, magnetic field and polar magnetosphere – searching for clues about how Jupiter formed, the amount of water present in the deep atmosphere, how the planet’s mass is distributed and confirming whether it has a rocky core. It will also study Jupiter’s deep winds, which can reach speeds of 370 mph (600 km/h).

The Cassini–Huygens mission, originally launched back in 1997, continued to return data in 2011, performing over a dozen flybys of Saturn and its moons. It will continue to operate until 2017 when it is crashed directly into Saturn.

Meanwhile, New Horizons reached another milestone as it passed the orbit of Uranus. The probe is scheduled to reach Pluto in 2015 and will obtain the first close-range images of the planet, together with its moons. A fourth moon of Pluto was discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope last year.

2011 was a phenomenal year for exoplanets, with a rich haul of discoveries by Kepler and other observatories. Among the many exciting finds was the first confirmed world in a habitable zone – the region around a star where a planet can maintain liquid water on its surface. 2012 looks set to be an even bigger year as thousands of candidate planets are confirmed. With telescopes becoming ever larger and more sophisticated, together with exponentially increasing data analysis and processing capabilities, part of the Drake Equation might actually be solved in the not-too-distant future. Desert planets are probably the more common type of habitable planet in our galaxy, rather than watery planets such as Earth, according to Japanese researchers.

Three astrophysicists won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics for their observations of distant supernovae, which provided evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. Their work led to the concept of dark energy.

Progress was also made at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, where researchers announced the first clear observation of a new fundamental particle – believed to be the Higgs boson. If confirmed in 2012, this could answer one of the biggest questions in physics: how matter gets it mass.

The Large Hadron Collider made a further breakthrough in 2011 – producing a quark-gluon plasma which was the densest form of matter ever observed. This recreated the early conditions of the universe as it might have been during the immediate aftermath of the Big Bang.

There were many spectacular space photos in 2011. You can view some of the best ones here.

Transport and Infrastructure

On 30th June 2011, the Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway was officially opened. This connects two major economic zones in China – the Bohai Economic Rim and the Yangtze River Delta – with trains running at 300 km/h (186 mph). It became the world’s longest high-speed line ever constructed in a single phase, with a total length of 1,318 km (819 miles). Over 130,000 construction workers and engineers were at work at the peak of the construction phase. It also includes some of the world’s longest bridges.

On the very same day that Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway was opened, another massive project was also completed – the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge. Located in China’s eastern Shandong province, this roadway bridge is 42.5 kilometres (26.4 miles) long, making it the world’s longest bridge over water by aggregate length according to the Guinness World Records. It is designed to be earthquake- and typhoon-proof.

China also announced plans for the largest airport in the world – Beijing Daxing International Airport – which will be capable of handling up to 200 million passengers a year. It has a planned completion date of October 2017, and will be connected to the centre of Beijing via high-speed rail.

Meanwhile, the Russian government approved plans for a true “mega project” – a tunnel beneath the Bering Strait that would physically connect Asia with North America. If completed by 2045, this would allow passengers to board a train in London and take a direct trip to New York City, via Moscow and Yakutsk.

Though still modest in numbers, hybrid and pure-electric vehicles saw notable growth in sales during 2011. In the UK, for example, nearly eight times as many pure-electric cars were purchased compared with 2010. More than 17,000 plug-in vehicles were delivered to the US market. At present, the main disadvantage of these cars – aside from their high cost – is the long charge times the batteries need, and their short battery life. However, a number of new technologies and materials are now emerging, such as highly porous Aluminum-Celmet being developed in Japan. The price of batteries could drop 50% by 2018, say German researchers.

Even aeroplanes are beginning to go green. In June, KLM became the first airline in the world to provide flights using biofuel. It was joined by Lufthansa and Finnair, the latter conducting a 1,500 km journey between Amsterdam and Helsinki, the longest flight to date using biofuel.

A long-range, solar-powered plane – Solar Impulse – made its first international flight, travelling a distance of 630 km (391 mi), with an average speed of 50 km/h (31 mph). It will attempt to circumnavigate the globe in 2014.

2011 saw the “topping out” of Tokyo Sky Tree, which became the tallest free-standing tower in the world. This huge new landmark stands 634 metres (2,080 ft) high. It will serve as a digital broadcasting tower for media companies in Japan, as well as providing a restaurant and observation deck for the public.

In New York, the new World Trade Center began to make its mark on the skyline. By December, it had reached the 90th floor, with construction progressing at one floor per week. The entire complex (including the other towers) is scheduled to be finished by 2014. The tower was specially illuminated to mark the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks.

Kingkey 100 – a supertall skyscraper in Shenzhen – was opened in September 2011. This stands 442 metres (1,449 ft) high and contains 100 floors of hotel and office space. A much taller building – the Shanghai Tower – is now under construction and planned for completion in 2014. At 632 metres (2,073 ft), it will become the tallest building in China and the second tallest in the world – surpassed only by the 830m (2,723 ft) Burj Khalifa.

Meanwhile, it was announced that a contract had been signed for construction of the Kingdom Tower in Jeddah – the first skyscraper to break the kilometre-high mark. Groundwork appears to be getting underway already, with completion expected by 2017.

Many other supertall skyscrapers were under construction or being proposed in 2011. One tower receiving particular attention was London’s Shard – a controversial project, in a city that has traditionally been associated with a low-rise skyline.

London also completed its Olympic Stadium, Athletes Village and Media Centre in preparation for the 2012 Summer Olympics.

The new World Trade Center under construction - specially illuminated to mark the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks (click to enlarge).